From intermedia and from transmedia: the Travelogue genre

From intermedia and from transmedia: the Travelogue genre

– Communication on “The intermediality of the” Travelogue diary ” genre: a “work in progress” in visual arts” at the 3rd International Conference of Intermediality Studies  at the ISMAI, 6 and 7 June 2013 at the Instituto Superior da Maia (ISMAI, Porto), under the responsibility of the Centro de Estudos em Letras (CEL) and the Centro de Estudos Lingua, Comunicação e Cultura of ISMAI (CELCC).

– Communication on “The interarts travelogue, crossmedia and transmedia: story of a transmedia genre inherited from Intermediality and artialité” at the Day on the history of transmedia organized by the Laboratory Astram (EA 4673) of University of Aix-Marseille Aubagne, May 31, 2013.

From artistic works of travellers-painters as yet unreleased, the travelogue diary became a kind of an edited album, thus a sub-genre of paraliteratures [1] and then a mediatique genre of of mass media, nearly a kind of intermedia. Born in the Romantic era [2], it has come from an aesthetic interaction between the arts and the media, the result of a history of interferences and interactions between different media. The circulation in the complementarity of the media could generate a transmedial and crossed travelogue. It seems that the notion of travel, which is characteristic of this genre could be quite suitable for a journey between different media. Indeed, Nicolas Bry defines transmedia on the site called “transmedialab” from the thesis “Transmedia Storytelling” G A. Long (2007) based on the innovation of the narrative [3] that was developed by Henry Jenkins during his lectures in Europe during the month of May 2012. [4] This is the project of the digital artist Karen Guillorel [5] who received the prize for the digital travelogue Vidéoformes [6] in November 2011 at the Rendez-vous du carnet de voyage de Clermont-Ferrand for her creation Je sakura , Japan in the form of an auto-fictional cartoon that she would like to extend to transmedia which she defines as “the ability to create a huge narrative puzzle in which the various elements are narrated  on several media outlets that converge and are not only stories by themselves but also participate as a larger narrative scaffolding. We can thus tell great stories, epics and express themselves through very different media. We return to the era of story-tellers thanks to transmedia “[7]. Her work in collaboration with Yann Minh wishes to exploit the creative potential for the project “E-Migration” [8]. But before this recent transmedial creation how did the “Travelogue” genre innovate and found its tranmédial way?

With the existence of transmedial travelogue diary, how do we trace its recent history since 2006? What is its mediatique origin? Did the works in the Travelogue diary announce its beginnings before 2006? What were the stages of its emergence? Were the installation-exhibition of graphical literature the trigger (please see Enki Bilal and Goscinny, François Schuiten and Benoît Peeters)? In what manner can we distinguish the process of innovation by analysing the production of travelogues over the past six years? Are the intermedial and interarts travelogue inclined to transmedia storytelling? How did artialité in the visual arts initiate this change? Is Transmedia the ultimate stage of “work in progress” of Intermediality? From a corpus of a dozen travelogues, we have distinguished two stages in this chronological essay on the emergence of transmedia for the travelogue: on the one hand, recognition of the “Travelogue” genre between intermediality andartiality based on the diary-works and on the other hand the development of transmedial travelogue from its mediatique circulation of the installation kind. Also after the editorial explosion of published works from 2000 to 2004, paper publishing is declining and opening up an era of media movement of a genre towards audio-visual and digital. Since 2006 transmedia is being thought about thanks to a mediatical convergence brought about by digital media.

Pascale Argod

Enseignante PRCE à l'université de Bordeaux (INSPE d'Aquitaine) et chercheuse au sein de l'équipe du MICA (2246 - Médiation, information, communication, art) de l'université de Bordeaux Montaigne, requalifiée en SIC (2010 - 2024 par le Conseil national des universités), Docteur en sciences de l'information et de la communication.

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The ethnographic and orientalist diary of Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) “Album in North Africa” : work of art

The ethnographic and orientalist diary of Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) “Album in North Africa” : work of art

In vogue for Orientalism, Delacroix in 1832 for Morocco [1] since it is named official painter in the diplomatic delegation of Charles de Mornay. Four books in seven Delacroix reached us [2]: three are in the Musée du Louvre and the Museum of Condé in Chantilly, among them Album of Croze in 1855 and Charente Album in 1822. Morocco offers Delacroix ethnographic subjects are the object of his books [3], first around Tangier inspired watercolor “The Jewish Bride of Tangier,” then after thirteen days of Meknes and then crossing the Andalusia and Oran, Algiers that inspired “Women of Algiers in their Apartment” and finally Marrakech. This book brings together studies “which refers to the seventeenth century a graphical representation constituting an exercise test: general preparation or detail of the work as a whole, research graphic composition or achievements details” [4] . The two double pages sketches “Album of North Africa” [5] which represent the one hand a “crowd of Moroccans before a great door crowded court and prison door Jew and Arab horse to spring “and the other” landscape with mosque in the background and characters “deserve to be analyzed by their original composition where the handwritten notes, sketches, characters, different plans and details are juxtaposed giving and depth and a particular reading of the image. The first example provides a breakdown of page views in three successive general plan to wander outside to inside the medina, the more confused second example offers two main views embellished details and viewing angles smaller. As a camera, Delacroix guide his brush which is the culmination of his eyes staring. He argues, stops on that aspect, back, discovered wandering … are visual notes studying framing, composition, elements to bring together all the drawings in a painting workshop in rear. It seems at times that the book says “storyboard” [6], both the concept of displacement and angle of view is important, sometimes so close to the “traveling”. These books reflect a movement, a pilgrimage and an ethnographic approach that define the “carnet de voyage” as a testimony chewed on a bright background and experience exotic experienced as a trace and ethnographic encounters. The ethnographic point of view, scenes of daily life are transcribed with all the details, they deal with objects, utensils, decorative items, costumes, jewelry … watercolor studies prior to the completion of the table ” Women of Algiers “are numerous and are annotated with captions specifying colors and materials that can not appear on a simple sketch on the spot. On some pages, such as “Arab horsemen, of trees and sea in the background” [7], the text manuscript fits the drawing, overlays, blends and in the composition of the image. In line with the Brothers Goncourt, it is a travelogue where the image space that meets the writing to fit into a plastic holding immediacy, speed of execution, the immediacy of emotion and gaze. In this example, the work of Delacroix is paradoxically a completed version such as “travel diary” where neither the image nor the text prevail: they combine a course in space, moving the trip is visible in the composition of page as well as the time before and transcribed Delacroix is the creator of “travel diary” he repeated in a frenzy of discovery, research and study plastic generated by the orientalist quest impressions, sensations andemotions due to Elsewhere through an ethnographic approach.

Summary of features such as “kind Diary” launched by Delacroix :

– Wandering over journey through the landscape of the general plan specific plan (portraits meetings).

– Sketches on the spot or rough technique: speed and instantaneous experience (as a kind of camera in hand).

– Insert text in the image: visual notes accompanied by annotations on the colors, textures, light ….

– A Study Notebook artistic and visual notes to memory in order to achieve a pregnancy of the pictorial work is composed and subsequently bringing together a synthesis of many elements of the trip.

– Atmosphere of “picturesque” saved as “worthy of being painted” with ethnographic elements annotated in order to achieve the masterpiece painting workshop at a later return trip.

– Notes written on visual details: colors, decoration details, reasons, information on the sketch book is a preparatory drawing.

– The travel allows the art historian to understand the creative act of painting masterpiece: primary source, a kind of rough draft of the artist who created basically the act of inspiration, genesis of the artwork.

The ethnologist’s diary by Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)

After his essays of diaries in Britanny [8] and influenced by journal of Delacroix, Gauguin left to a new “Orient”, “topos” of Orientalist literature, towards the Pacific Ocean. From 1892 at Tahiti, the painter searched “The old Mahori cult” which had totally disappeared under the influence of colonization and this from  reading ‘ The travel to the islands of the Big Ocean. [9] It illustrates the watercolor story of the genesis of the world by comparing Maori Christian worship revealing his passion for the comparative history of religions. It compiles sketches of decorative arts natives or tiki sculptures, tattoos and patterns. Gauguin wrote several travel books including Noa Noa: Voyage to Tahiti [10] is the most interesting because it looks like a “watercolor novel” which describes the “New Cythera” or “island paradise” in his imaginary geography [ 11] and its return to nature

“The civilization goes gradually from me. Beginning to think I just have little hatred for my neighbor – better to love. I have all the free enjoyment of life, animal and human. escapes I fake, I enter in nature [12]. ”

There is an indictment against the European culture and society and advocacy Polynesian traditions. Charles Morice, Symbolist writer, contributes to rewrite his collection of notes and decided to publish it in 1901. This first version is completed with Gauguin over the remaining two years until 1903 by a second composed of all the graphic processes that juxtaposed Victor Segalen discovers upon his arrival in Papeete shortly after his death:

“The text, which is pale brown ink complete harmony with the paper is browned here and there interrupted watercolors – mostly washed separate paper, cut, pasted. Ago traces of everything that was to this time the master of life dealing with the existence ruthless tropics – splendor of light, great effort and surrender. Noa Noa “is indeed a manuscript leather with a watercolor gouache on flat front which comprises one hundred to four Eighty-two sheets which are glued on fifty-nine watercolors and colored wood with eighteen black wood, as well as prints, photographs and documents of all kinds sometimes accompanying text written in black ink, sometimes in blue ink (1891-1893) “according to the inventory of the Department of Graphic Arts at the Louvre. [13]

According to Farid Abdelouahad [14]:

“Mixing genres and techniques, burst timing and usage rules, plenty of styles, contrasts and offsets: the creative spontaneity of Gauguin led to a revolution in visual perception. Possibilities offered by new technologies image, photography and cinema, are not unrelated to his business, which opens the way for a new field of fine arts which can express the freedom of collage heterogeneous [15]. ”

The travel was born contemporary meet anthropology, ethnology and art combined and mixed race. Gauguin himself living the phenomenon of mixing through a form of acculturation that reveals its creativity, the book is an autobiographical travel to a turned ethnological research helped his meeting with the young Tahitian with whom he lives in Mataiea. Through a process of ethnologist, he uses all the graphic arts and cultural objects which he immersed himself. Its originality marked the birth of contemporary travel book as literary pictorial or graphic. Note that Delacroix is also a painter book illustrator artist most notably for “Faust” by Goethe in 1828.

[1] Delacroix, a journey of Morocco, Andalusia, Algeria. Maurice Arama. No place, 2006.

Delacroix and Morocco. Guy Dumur. Hersher, 1988. (Artsite places).

[2] The manuscript of “Album of trip to Spain, Morocco and Algeria” by Eugène Delacroix is preserved in the library of the Château de Chantilly.

[3] The journal of Delacroix. Eugène Delacroix. Verbally limited, Louvre Museum, 2005 (1-disc compact).

Anthology of the Journal. Eugène Delacroix. Thousand and One Nights, 2002 (The small collection, No. 389)

Travel to Morocco watercolors. Delacroix. Alain Daguerre Hureaux. Image Library, 2000.

Memories of a trip to Morocco. Eugène Delacroix. Gallimard, 1999 (art and artists).

[4] See Article: Study. In Dictionary of the image. Dir. Françoise Juhel. Coord.Vanoye.Vuibert Francis, 2006.

[5] page 34 and details from 35 to 37 and page 54 and details of 55-57 selected reproductions Morocco Travel: watercolors. Delacroix. Alain Daguerre Hureaux. Image Library, 2000.

[6] See Part 3 in 1.3.1. The “comic literature” (“graphic literature”) or narration image: iconotextuel album, the graphic novel or “graphic novel”, or storyboard artist book?

[7] On page 48 details and 49 reproductions of selected travel in Morocco watercolors. Delacroix. Alain Daguerre Hureaux. Image Library, 2000.

[8] Book of Britain. Paul Gauguin. Before and after. Papeete, 2002.

It consists of notes synthetic inspired his paintings from 1884 to 1887.

[9] Published in 1837 and written by former consul Oceania Jacques-Antoine Moerenhout.

[10] It should contain poems of Symbolist poet Charles Morice (1860-1919).

[11] Géograhies Gauguin. Jean-François Staszack. Breal, 2003.

Gauguin traveler: Peru to the Marquesas Islands. Jean-François Staszack.Breal, 2003. Geo Solar, 2006 (culture).

[12] Noa Noa. Paul Gauguin. Before and after. Papeete, 2001.

Book Tahiti. Paul Gauguin. Before and after. Papeete, 2001.

Writer Gauguin: Noa Noa, Various things, ancient cult mahorie. Paul Gauguin. RMN, 2003 (CD)

[14] Writer and historian of art and photography, Curator and designer who has published several anthologies of travel journals and books on photography since 1998.

[15] These wonderful travel books. Farid Abdelouhab. Reader’s Digest, 2004.p. 116.

Pascale Argod

Enseignante PRCE à l'université de Bordeaux (INSPE d'Aquitaine) et chercheuse au sein de l'équipe du MICA (2246 - Médiation, information, communication, art) de l'université de Bordeaux Montaigne, requalifiée en SIC (2010 - 2024 par le Conseil national des universités), Docteur en sciences de l'information et de la communication.

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Graphical reporting and travel journal to be used as supports for intercultural education and citizenship

Graphical reporting and travel journal to be used as supports for intercultural education and citizenship  (intercultural journals and intercultural mobility)

The travelogue and travel reporting, a tool for training and learning, mobility for European institutions  and intercultural references

Extract from the letter of 5 February 2010 at the General Assembly of the AEDE France and November 21, 2010 at the conference “The school, the future of Europe? ‘

This practice is innovative in teaching literature since it is based on personal expression, inherited from the Freinet pedagogy [1] focused on an active learner based on field survey initiated to ethnography: Book the survey offers indeed a back and forth between ground and reflection through an inductive method [2]. It promotes writing a diary [3] as written to the other with a distancing indispensable bank personal data and purpose of initiation, sublimate the time and the confrontation with the Other. This personal approach can be considered for a professional project guidance to fix the memory and the evolution of the course: it is in fact a kind of “human capital” [4], “existential projection,” in the words Alain Taupin [5]. The process personal achievement book arouses curiosity, sharpens the eye, awaken emotions and puts the thought in motion: thus builds a humanistic culture, and from there, can perform a formative evaluation to measure the specific investment the creator.

The book features educational travel are in fact based on the various functions of illustration and image-witness (photo), development of a message (graphic arts), documentary aspects of reality (conceptual image) representation of art (painting) … – and it raises cognitive skills :

– Spatial organization and creation of original image where text is wrapped in a single graphic composition,

– Narrative of displacement over the pages linked by a graphic more or less obvious,

– Force generated by questioning the journey, which is the change of benchmarks and the confrontation with the other hand, the other, other cultural referents,

– Double vocation of the hybrid genre of narrative time and place mentioned / psychology and intention of the author,

– Scripted narrative to witness and experience a shift in words and images.

In addition, the artistic forge the spirit of creativity, innovation and spatialization, the right hemisphere of the brain, the center of the image, spatiality, inclusiveness, intuition and snapshot is probably not enough mobilized in education then it can play an undeniable role in the formation of the individual. It opens, among others, the way of drawing that is outside the world record, the seat of the left hemisphere (rationality, logic, analysis and abstraction) as noted by Betty Edwards in her book “Drawing with the right brain” (Eyrolles, 2002) explains his approach: “The overall competence to draw something that we see (a person, object or landscape) requires only five basic skills entirely focused on perception and not any capacity drawing: – the perception of edges. – The perception of spaces – the perception of relations – the perception of lights and shadows – the perception of everything “. [6] In short, you need to know to be able to watch draw, already sensed that the sculptor Rodin: “It is because I see that I created.”

Also foster this competence through the completion of a travelogue could be relevant in the context of teaching creative documentary that combines the dual jurisdiction of the analysis of information and field observation. This is what projects travelogues we installed three years ago with some colleagues teacher-librarians [7] tried to offer Bordeaux: at once documentary and artistic, between news media and work of art, they are modeled on the editorial genre that oscillates tourist guide book artist. In continuation of actions in the Auvergne Academy since 2001 (Price and day students training and internship PAF), we also tested this tool in different fields such as education and intercultural education citizenship, heritage education, the environment and sustainable development.

And experiment with various drawing techniques could be a key to mobilizing spatial cognitive abilities: thumbnail sketch or rough which requires rapid gesture drawings observation takes time, sketches (such as book-anthropologist anthropologist) maps, plans or drawings that require adaptation explanatory sketches or preparatory drawing for a painting or a composition that requires disposal as artistic drawings imagination, memories or from photographs, cartoons … etc. The travel is defined primarily as indeed a mosaic image of graphic processes from a juxtaposition of artistic and authentic documents, traces or clues. It is a day to synthesize a page consists of multiple images that narrate the events for a possible reading: it therefore requires some adaptation to the reader who must decrypt the page and understand visual notes transcribed by carnettiste – postpone or artist. It should read the images travelogue.

In addition, the travelogue is a plastic creation for innovative artistic and cultural education as it promotes different skills: you must know t transmit the experience of the awakening of all the senses, the authentic witness through dialogue between design and build objects and clues of a museum staff (or cabinet of curiosities), illustrate the cultural differences using the symbolism of colors and pigments, trace the journey with the charter graphic and railway immerse themselves in “exoticism” [8] or the identity of the country by creating a book-object, recreate the atmosphere of a place but also discover the environment, heritage, culture and arts of the country through the “graphic story”.

And training in visual arts is complete because the student uses various graphic processes (calligraphy, typography, drawing techniques, materials, photography), experimenting with various functions of the design (observation, preparatory, explanatory diagram study composition, manufacturing plan) but also think the media circulation of the medium [9].

This teaching tool also serves the implementation of education programs: the image education since 2000 in college (letters, arts and geo-hist), the teaching of history arts since 2008, compulsory patent in 2011, Intercultural education [10] with the language and cultural competence in the teaching of art history [11], environmental education and sustainable development and peace education, tolerance and anthropology.

Concerning more specifically the formation of European citizenship, it would seem to be a suitable tool [12]. Its advantages are undeniable effect in the context of a centered pedagogy expression, creativity, image and imagination [13] to raise awareness of an ethic of respect and curiosity about the world that promotes adaptability and promote innovation, initiation and mobility [14]. This tool “intermedia”, blog or vblog is open communication and collaboration for intercultural mediation and intercultural education. The travel is the exercise of an art experiment that promotes a sensitive eye on each other and allows the expression of identity of a look-witness to the world. Personal tool for research and inspiration for artists, it is also for the traveler ethnographer or anthropologist support reflection on the views and sights of cultural difference, a structured living memory that allows you to project into the future (draft). It places the author in a position to book artist through education under that promotes creativity and seeks graphical reporting and sociological approach to “witness and become runner”. It would facilitate the identification and sharing through singular.

Since the travelogue is defined as the autobiography of a journey in which the image is central to the text, the hybrid genre of the story would have a dual purpose (time and place mentioned / psychology and the author’s intentions ): for students, it is objectively write it relates, on the model of the documentary, but also to translate his feelings (instincts of love or rejection, and expressive vocabulary words with strong connotations) and impressions (five senses) as evoked diary or biography. In addition, the imaginary books “on no …” have a role as the initiatory passage reading takes to travel to travel. The contributions of the dream trip (as far as experience) is undeniable that the reader becomes traveler through literature and the imagination of travel [15] :

“There is a complete man that who has traveled extensively, has changed twenty times the form of his thought and life” Lamartine.

[1] Title of the magazine type photo album created in 1994 by PEMF publications.

[2] With reference to the literature on intercultural education and Gisele Mojavet Anne Provost.

[3] With reference to publications Rémi Hess, Professor at Paris VIII.

[4] Title of the workshop organized by Patrice Delegate at the Congress “International mobility: the letter and the spirit”, on 28 and 29 June 2010 in Bordeaux. Publication of the Acts of Congress in 2011.

[5] Deputy Director ONISEP: intervention in the workshop “You said human capital? “When Congress International Mobility: the letter and the spirit”, on 28 and 29 June 2010 in Bordeaux. Publication of the Acts of Congress in 2011.

[6] Website of Betty Edwards:

[7] projects supervised by fellow teachers below:

Monique Dinand, teacher – librarian (project “European heritage book”)

Françoise Goirand, teacher of applied arts (project “book artist and professional journey of initiation”)

Sophie Jeanjean, teacher – librarian (project “Interculturalités and live together”)

Marylène Dickinson, a French teacher in England (project “Intercultural English book-Indians in South India”)

[8] According to Victor Segalen ‘perceive the various “to access the other.

[9] The two notions of intermediality and artialité are at the heart of the problem of the doctoral thesis supported on this kind in the CIS University of Bordeaux III December 10, 2010.

[10] With reference to Intercultural Dialogue of the Council of Europe in 1975.

[11] See BOEN No. 32 of August 28, 2008: “Art and cultural identities: otherness and dialogue” in college, in the theme of “Art creations cultures” and in high school, “Arts, Societies, Cultures” .

[12] Note: the experience of the Ministry «My notebook Europe”, three books holidays for 7-15 years.,

[13] European projects develop creative skills: a thematic year returns bearing results. Sylvie Thomas. Agence Europe Education Formation France, Soléo the spirit move!, March 2010, No. 22.


[15] Reflection developed pedagogical perspective in 2002 the Academy of Reims: See the article “Intercultural awareness on trade, travel: toward anthropology and creativity,” Pascale Argod, InterCDI, No. 177 , May-June 2002.

Pascale Argod

Enseignante PRCE à l'université de Bordeaux (INSPE d'Aquitaine) et chercheuse au sein de l'équipe du MICA (2246 - Médiation, information, communication, art) de l'université de Bordeaux Montaigne, requalifiée en SIC (2010 - 2024 par le Conseil national des universités), Docteur en sciences de l'information et de la communication.

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